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Beyond toilets: Managing human waste across the sanitation chain in India

In a bid to end open defaecation, India has built more than 100 million toilets since 2014. But to protect human health and the environment, cities have to safely manage what comes out of them. Shit Flow Diagrams have emerged as a key tool to help them plan and monitor progress.


The Shhh Job: Sanitation for liveable cities

Poor sanitation comes with a cost – it affects the affected individuals’ and populations’ health status and their productivity. Zambia, for example, loses 1.3 percent of GDP due to public health impacts of poor sanitation which results in child malnutrition, illness and premature death.

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